2014 – Volume 3, Issue 1 / (Page 19-22)

In vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities of aqueous skin mucus from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on human pathogens

Olcay Hisar, Sukriye Aras Hisar, Mehmet Hamidullah Uyanık, Tolga Sahin, Fikret Cakir, Sevdan Yilmaz



 Extracts and preparations made from the animal origin were used extensively in folk and modern medicine for treating many human diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial and antifungal activities of aqueous skin mucus from rainbow trout. Evaluation of inhibition effect of the aqueous skin mucus against Staphylococcus aureus-ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli-ATCC 9837, Citrobacter freundii-ATCC 8090, Enterobacter aerogenes-ATCC 13048, Neisseria lactamica-ATCC 23970, Proteus vulgaris-ATCC 49990, Proteus mirabilis-ATCC 29906, Pseudomonas aeruginosa-ATCC 9027, Pseudomonas fluorescens-ATCC 13525, Bacillus cereus-ATCC 10987, Klebsiella pneumonia-ATCC 13883, Klebsiella oxyttoca-ATCC 43863, Streptococcus pneumoniae-ATCC 49619, Candida albicans-ATCC 90028 and Candida parapsilosis-ATCC 22019 was tested. The antimicrobial and antifungal effects of mucus on the bacteria were assessed by a disc diffusion assay. The activity was measured in terms of zone of inhibition in mm. The mucus did not show antibacterial and antifungal activities against any of the tested strains of bacteria and fungi yeast.



 Oncorhynchus mykiss, Epidermal mucus, Antibacterial activity


Download Full-Text



  •  Alexander, J.B. and G.I., Ingram. 1992. Non-cellular non-specific defence mechanisms of fish. Annual Review of Fish Diseases, 2:249-279.
  • Aranishi, F. and M. Nakane. 1998. Epidermal proteases of American eel. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 10: 35-42.
  • Aranishi, F. 2000. High sensitivity of skin cathepsins L and B of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) to thermal stress. Aquaculture, 182:209–213.
  • ARENA (Applied Research Ethics National Association). 2002. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidebook. 2nd Edition, Boston.
  • Austin, B. and D. McIntosh. 1988. Natural antibacterial compounds on the surface of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Journal of Fish Diseases, 11:275-277.
  • Barnes, A.C., Horne, M.T. and A.E. Ellis. 2003. Streptococcus iniae expresses a cell surface non-immune trout immunoglobulin-binding factor when grown in normal trout serum. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 15:425-431.
  • Birkemo, G.A., Luders, T., Andersen, O., Nes, I.F. and J. Nissen-Meyer. 2003. Hipposin, a histone-derived antimicrobial peptide in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.). Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Proteins and Proteomics, 1646:207-215.
  • Cameron, A. and R. Endean. 1973. Epidermal secretions and evolution of venom glands in fishes. Toxicon, 11:401-410.
  • Ebran, N., Julien, S., Orange, N., Saglio, P., Lemaître, C. and G. Molle. 1999. Poreforming properties and antibacterial activity of proteins extracted from epidermal mucus of fish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-Part A, 122:181–189.
  • Ellis, A. 1999. Immunity to bacteria in fish. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 9:291-308.
  • Ellis, A.E. 2001. Innate host defense mechanisms of fish against viruses and bacteria. Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 25:827-839.
  • Fernandes, J.M.O. and V.J. Smith. 2002. A novel antimicrobial function for a ribosomal protein from skin secretions of rainbow trout. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 296 (1):167–71.
  • Fouz, B., Devesa, S., Gravningen, K., Barja, J.L. and A.E. Toranzo. 1990. Antibacterial action of the mucus of turbot. European Association of Fish Pathologists, 10:56-59.
  • Hellio, C., Pons, A.M., Beaupoil, C., Bourgougnon, N. and Y. Le Gal. 2002. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of extracts from fish epidermis and epidermal mucus. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 20:214-219.
  • Hjelmeland, K., Chrisite, M. and J. Raa. 1983. Skin mucus protease from rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, and its biological significance. Journal of Fish Biology, 23:13-22.
  • Itami, T., Takahashi, Y. and K. Sato. 1987. Bacteriolytic activities in the skin mucus of Ayu. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 53:401–406.
  • Nagashima, Y., Sendo, A., Shimakura, K., Shiomi, K., Kobayashi, T., Kimura, B. and T. Fujii. 2001. Antibacterial factors in skinmucus of rabbitfishes. Journal of Fish Biology, 58:1761-1765.
  • Negus, V.E. 1963. The functions of mucus. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 56:204-214.
  • Pickering, A. 1974. The distribution of mucus cells in the epidermis of the brown trout Salmona truta (L) and the char Salvelinus alpinus (L). Journal of Fish Biology, 6:111-118.
  • Rainger, G.E., and A.F. Rowley. 1993. Antibacterial Activity in the Serum and Mucus of Rainbow-Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Following Immunization with Aeromonas Salmonicida. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 3:475-482.
  • Rosen, M. and N. Cornford. 1971. Fluid friction of fish slimes. Nature, 234:49-51.
  • Saglio, P., and J. Blanc. 1989. Intraspecific chemo-communication in immature goldfish, Carassius auratus (L): attraction in olfactometer to free amino acid fractions from skin extracts. Behavioral Biology, 14:132-147.
  • Saint, N., Cadiou, H., Bessin, Y. and G. Molle. 2002. Antibacterial peptide pleurocidin forms ion channels in planar lipid bilayers. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Biomembranes, 1564:359-364.
  • Sarmaşik, A. 2002. Antimicrobial peptides: a potential therapeutic alternative for the treatment of fish diseases. Turkish Journal of Biology, 26:201–207.
  • Smith, V.J., Fernandes, J.M.O., Jones, S.J., Kemp, G.D., and M.F.Tatner. 2000. Antibacterial proteins in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 10:243–260.
  • Svendsen, Y. S. and J. Bogwald. 1997. Influence of artificial wound and non-intact mucus layer on mortality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) following a bath challenge with Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 7:317-325.
  • Subramanian, S., MacKinnon, S., and N. Ross. 2007. A comparative study on innate immune parameters in the epidermal mucus of various fish species. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B, 148:256-263.
  • Subramanian, S., Ross, N.W., and S.L. MacKinnon. 2008. Comparison of antimicrobial activity in the epidermal mucus extracts of fish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 150B:85e92.
  • Takahashi, Y., Kajiwaki, T., Itami, T. and T. Okamoto. 1987. Enzymatic properties of the bacteriolytic substances in the skin mucus of yellowtail. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 53(3):425–431.
  • Wei, O.Y., Xavier, R. and K. Marimuthu. 2010. Screening of antibacterial activity of mucus extract of Snakehead fish, Channa striatus (Bloch). European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 14:675-681.