2013 – Volume 2, Issue 1 / (Page 23-35)

Influences of different collector materials on Mediterranean Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis L. 1819 in the Dardanelles 

Harun Yıldız, Aynur Lök, Sefa Acarlı, Serpil Serdar, Aysun Küçükdermenci, Selçuk Berber, Pervin Vural



The present study is carried out in Kilya Bay (in the Dardanelles) between February 2002 and February 2004. The purpose of this study was to determine the most suitable collector material, time to collect mussel seed, and the growth rate. In the first three months of the study, different collector materials (net rope, polypropylene rope, sisal rope, and jute rope) were deployed in the water column. Spat recruitment was not varied between collector materials (p>0.05). When resistance of ropes were compared against the effects of water, it was found that net rope was most suitable for the mussel seed collection. Net collectors were deployed in February, March, April, May, June, and January. Mussel spat settlement was observed throughout the study, however between collectors, spat attachment was significantly different between months (p<0.05). The higher attachment period was observed in February and April. These results showed that mussel reproduction period was all year round and first attachment individuals reached marketable (<50 mm) size in 1.5 year.



Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Collector, Attachment, Growth, Reproduction


Download Full-Text



  • Beiras, R., Camacho, P. A. and Albentosa, M. 1993. Influence of food concentration on energy balance and growth performance of Venerupis pullastra seed reared in an open – flow system. Aquaculture, 116: 353 – 365.
  • Beukema, J. J. and de Vlas J. 1989. Tidal – current transport of thread – drifting postlarval juveniles of the bivalve Macoma balthica from the Wadden Sea to the North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 52: 193 – 200.
  • Camacho, P. A., Gonzalez, R. and Fuentes, J. 1991. Mussel culture in Galicia (NW Spain). Aquaculture, 94: 263 – 278.
  • Caceres – Martinez, J.,Robledo, J. A. F. and Figueras, A. 1994. Settlement and post – larvae behavior of Mytilus galloprovincialis: field and laboratory experiments. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 112: 107 – 117.
  • Çelikkale, M. S., Düzgüneş, E. and Candeğer, A. F. 1993. Fishing Gears and technology (ın Turkish). Karadeniz Technical University Publishing.
  • Dare, P.J., Edwards, D. B. and Davies, G. 1983. Experimental collection and handling of spat mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) on ropes for intertidal cultivation. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Directorate of Fisheries Research (Lowestoft). Fisheries Research Technical Report, 74: 1 – 23.
  • Davies, G. 1974. A method for monitoring the spatfall of mussel (Mytilus edulis L.). ICES Journal of Marine Science, 36(1): 27 – 34.
  • Eldridge P. J., Eversole, A. G. and Whetstone, J. M. 1979. Comparative survival and growth of hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria, planted in trays subtidally at varying densities in a South Carolina estuary. Proceeding of the National Shellfisheries Association, 69: 30 – 39.
  • Eyster, L. S. and Pechenik, A. J. 1987. Attachment of Mytilus edulis L. larvae on algal and byssal filaments is enhanced by water agitation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 114: 99 – 110.
  • Ferran, E., Trevino, M., Mancebo, M. J., Crespo, C. and Espinosa, J. 1990. Estudio del ciclo gonadal anual en Mytilus galloprovincialis: cinetica de poblaciones celulares en el manto y reservas bioenergeticas. Actas del III Congreso Nacional de Acuicultura, 467 – 472.
  • Filgueira, R., Peteiro, L.G., Labarta, U. and Fernández-Reiriz, M.J. 2007. Assessment of spat collector ropes in Galicia mussel farming. Aquacultural Engineering, 37:195-201.
  • Fuentes, J., Molares, J. and Villalba, A. 1998. Growth, mortality and parasitization of mussels cultivated in the Ria de Arousa (NW Spain) from two sources of seed: intertidal rocky shore versus collector ropes. Aquaculture, 162: 231 – 240.
  • Garcia Alcázar, A., Abellan Martinez, E., Perez Camacho, A. and Garcia Garcia, B. 1989. Flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, L. settlement on collectors in Mar Menor (SE Spain). In:N. De Pauw, E. Jaspers, H. Ackefors and N. Wilkins (Eds), Aquaculture: A Biotechnology Progress 1:299-305.
  • Gosling, E. 1992. The Mussel Mytilus: Ecology, Physiology, Genetics and Culture. Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
  • Gosling, E. 2003. Bivalve Molluscs: Biology, Ecology andCulture. Fishing News Books, BlackwellScience,London, 169-194.
  • Holiday, J. E., Allan, G. L. Frances, J. and Driver, L.P. 1993. Evaluation of commercially-used collectors for Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea commercialis, and Pasific oysters, Crassostrea gigas. Aquacultural Engineering, 12: 63-79.
  • Karayücel, S. and Karayücel, İ. 1997. Influence of environmental factors on condition index and biochemical composition in Mytilus edulis L. in cultivated – raft system, in two Scottish Sea Lochs. Turkish Journal Marine Sciences, 3 (3): 149 – 166.
  • Karayücel, S., Erdem, M., Uyan, O., Saygun, S. and Karayücel, İ. 2002. Spat settlement and growth on a long – line culture system of the mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, in the southern Black sea. The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture, 54 (4): 163 – 172.
  • Korringa, P. 1976. Farming Marine Organisms Low In The Food Chain. Developments In Aquaculture and Fisheries Science. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New York.
  • Lekang, O. I., Stevik, T. K., Bomo, A. M. 2003. Evaluation of different combined collectors used in longlines for blue mussel farming. Aquacultural Engineering, 27: 89 – 104. Lök, A. 2000. Mussell Biology and Culture Methods, 1 – 5 May 2000, Ankara. 93 – 101 s.
  • Lök, A., Acarlı, S., Serdar, S., Köse, A. and Yıldız, H., 2007. Growth and mortality of Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialisLam., 1819, in relation to size on longline in Mersin Bay, Izmir (Turkey – Aegean Sea). Aquaculture Research, 38: 819- 826.
  • Mallet, A. L. and Carver, C. E. A. 1989. Growth, mortality and secondary production in natural populations of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Canadian Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 46: 1154 – 1159.
  • Margus, D. and Teskeredzic, E. 1986. Settlement of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis L.) on rope collectors in the estuary of the River Krka, Yugoslavia. Aquaculture, 55: 285 – 296.
  • Martel, A. and Chia, F. S. 1991. Drifting and dispersal of small bivalves and gastropods with direct development. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 150: 131 – 147. Mason, J. 1971. Mussel cultivation. Underwater Journal, 3(2): 52- 59.
  • Okumuş, İ. 1993. Evaluation of suspended mussel (Mytilus edulis L) culture and Integrated experimental mariculture (salmon – mussel) trials in Scottish Sea Lochs. Ph. D. Thesis. University of Stirling.
  • Page , H. M. and Hubbard, D. M. 1987. Temporal and spatial patterns of growth in mussels Mytilus edulis on an offshore platform: relationship to water temperature and food availability. Journal Express Marine Biology and Ecology, 111: 159 – 179.
  • Perez, A. and Roman, G. 1979. Estudio del mejillon y de su epifauna en los cultivos flotantes de la Ria de Arosa. II. Boletin Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, 5(1): 21 – 42.
  • Ramirez, S. C. and Caceres – Martinez J. 1999. Settlement of the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck on artificial substrates in Bahia de Todos Santos B. C.,Mexico. Journal of Shellfish Research, 18(1): 33 – 39.
  • Seed, R. 1969. The ecology of Mytilus edulis L. (Lamellibranchiata) on exposed rocky shores. 2. Growth and mortality. Ecologia, 3: 317 – 350.
  • Suchanek, T. H. 1985. Mussels and their role in structuring rocky shore communities, p. 70- 96. In: P. G. Moore and R. Seed [eds.], Ecology of rocky coasts. Hodder and Stoughton, Sevenoaks, Kent.
  • Sukhotin, A. A. and Maximovich, N. V. 1994. Variability of growth rate in Mytilus edulis L. from the Chupa Inlet (The White Sea). Journal Express Marine Biology and Ecology, 176: 15 – 26.
  • Strickland, J. D. H. and Parsons, T. R. 1972. A practical handbook of seawater analysis. The Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 167: 207- 211.
  • Tsuchiya, M. 1983. Mass mortality in a population of the mussel Mytilus edulis L. Caused by high temperature on rocky shores. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 6(2):101–111.
  • Uysal, H. 1970. Biologial and ecologial investigations on the mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamark) living on the coastline of Turkey. Scientific Reports of the Faculty of Science. Ege University, 79: 1-79.
  • Villalba, A. 1995. Gametogenic cycle of cultured mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, in the bays of Galicia (NW Spain). Aquaculture, 130: 269 277.
  • Widdows, J., Freth, P. and Worrall, C. M. 1979. Relationship between seston available food and feeding activity in the common mussel Mytilus edulis. Marine Biology, 50: 195 – 207.
  • Yıldız, H. and Lök, A. 2005. Çanakkale Boğazında, iki değişik sistemde farklı boy gruplarındaki midyelerin (Mytilus galloprovincialis L. 1819) büyüme ve yaşama performansları. Ege Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 22(1-2): 69–74.
  • Yıldız, H. and Berber, S. 2010. Depth and seasonal effects on the settlement density of Mytilus galloprovincialis L. 1819 in the Dardanelles, Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances (ISI) , 756-759.
  • Yıldız, H., Lök, A., Serdar, S., Acarlı, S. and Köse, A. 2010. A preliminary survey on settlement and recruitment patterns of Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in Dardanelles, Turkey. The Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kafkas (ISI) , 319-324.